Formation of Structure and Phase Composition in Ecviatomic Alloys of Cu–Ni–Al–Fе–Cr System Synthesized by Mechanical Alloying

Nanocrystalline equiatomic high-entropy alloys (HEAs) have been synthesized by mechanical alloying in Cu–Ni–Al–Fе–Cr system from the binary CuNi alloy to the quinary CuNiAlFeCr alloy. By using X-ray diffraction analysis structure and phase evolution during mechanical alloying (MA) in binary to quinary alloys selected from Cu, Ni, Al, Fe и Cr in sequence were investigated. Binary CuNi alloy formed solid solution with face-centered cubic crystal structure in nanocrystalline state. Ternary to quinary alloys (CuNiAl, CuNiAlFe CuNiAlFeCr) first formed solid solution with body-centered cubic crystal structure in nanocrystalline state and then transformed into XRD-amorphous phase at the end of MA. No precipitation of the second phase such as intermetallic phase was found. The alloying sequence for the present alloy system during MA is determined as CuNiAlFeCr in the order of decreasing alloying rate. The alloying rate is found to correlate with the melting temperature of the elements. This correlation is explained through the effect of melting temperature on solid diffusion.
Keywords: high entropy alloys, mechanical alloying, X-ray diffraction, structure, phase composition, diffusion

Publication year: 
2014
Issue: 
5
УДК: 
620.22:620.187.22:543.442.3
С. 89–95., Іл. 4. Табл. 5. Бібліогр.: 20 назв.
References: 

1. J.W. Yeh et al., “Nanostructured high—entropy alloys with multyple principal elements; novel alloy design concepts and outcomes”, J. Adv. Eng. Mater., vol. 6, no. 5, pp. 299—303, 2004.
2. J.W. Yeh et al., “Formation of simple crystal structures in Cu—Co—Ni—Cr—Al—Fe—Ti—V alloys with multiprincipal metallic elements”, J. Metall. Mater. Trans., vol. 35A, no. 8, pp. 2533—2536, 2004.
3. P.K. Huang et al., “Multi—Principal—Element Alloys with Improved Oxidation and Wear Resistance for Thermal Spray Coating”, J. Adv. Eng. Mater. vol. 6, no. 1-2, pp. 74—78, 2004.
4. J.W. Yeh, “Recent progress in high—entropy alloys”, J. Ann. Chim. Sci. Mat., vol. 31, no. 6. pp. 633—648, 2006.
5. Y. Zhang et al., “Solid—Solution Phase Formation Rules for Multi—component Alloys”, J. Adv. Eng. Mater., vol. 10, no. 6, pp. 534—538, 2008.
6. J.-W. Yeh et al., “High—Entropy Alloys — A New Era of Explotation”, Mater. Sci. Forum, no. 560. pp. 1—9, 2007.
7. X. Yang et al., “Microstructure and Compressive Properties of NbTiVTaAlx High Entropy Alloys”, J. Procedia Eng., no. 36, pp. 292—298, 2012.
8. A.L. Greer, “Thermodynamics of Solids”, Nature, no. 336, pp. 303—304, 1993.
9. S. Guo and C.T. Liu, “Phase Stability in HEAs: Phase stability in high entropy alloys:Formation of solid—solution phase or amorphous phase”, Progress in Material Sc.: Materials Int., no. 21, pp. 433—446, 2011.
10. B. Cantor et al., “Microstructural development in equiatomic multicomponent alloys”, J. Mater. Sci. Eng. A., no. 375—377, pp. 213—218, 2004.
11. S. Varalakshmi et al., “Formation and Stability of Equiatomic and Nonequiatomic Nanocrystalline CuNiCoZnAlTi High—Entropy Alloys by Mechanical Alloying”, Metallurgical and Materials Trans. A, vol. 10, no. 41, pp. 2703—2709, 2010.
12. Y. Zhang and Y.J. Zhou, “Solid solution formation criteria for high entropy alloys”, Materials Sci. Forum, no. 561- 565, pp. 1337—1339, 2007.
13. D.A. Porter and K.E. Easterling, Phase Transformations in Metals аnd Alloys. London: Chapman & Hall, 1992, 514 p.
14. C. Kittel, Introduction to Solid State Physics. New York: John Wiley & Sons, 1996, 673 p.
15. F.R. de Boer, Cohesion in Metals. New York: Elsevier Scientific Pub. Co, 1988, 482 p.
16. A. Takeuchi and A. Inoue, “Calculation of mixing enthalpy and mismatch entropy for ternary amorphous alloys”, Mater. Trans., no. 41, pp. 1372—1378, 2000.
17. A.I. Yurkova et al., “Structure and Mechanical Properties of Iron Resulted from Surface Severe Plastic Deformation by Friction with Semultaneous Nitrogen Saturation: I. Fetures of Structure Formation”, Metally, no. 4, pp. 274—281, 2012.
18. P.P. Chattopadhyay et al., “Microstructure/phase evolution in mechanical alloying milling of stainless steel and aluminum powder blends”, Metall. Mater. Tras. A., no. 38A, pp. 2298—2307, 2007.
19. L. Schultz, “Formation of Amorphous Metals by Solid— State Reactions”, Philos. Mag. B, no. 61, pp. 453—471, 1990.
20. H.X. Sui et al., “The enhancement of solid solubility limits of AlCo intermetallic compound by high‐energy ball milling”, J. Appl. Phys., no. 71, pp. 2945—2949, 1992.

References [transliteration]: 

1. J.W. Yeh et al., “Nanostructured high–entropy alloys with multyple principal elements; novel alloy design concepts and outcomes”, J. Adv. Eng. Mater., vol. 6, no. 5, pp. 299–303, 2004.
2. J.W. Yeh et al., “Formation of simple crystal structures in Cu–Co–Ni–Cr–Al–Fe–Ti–V alloys with multiprincipal metallic elements”, J. Metall. Mater. Trans., vol. 35A, no. 8, pp. 2533–2536, 2004.
3. P.K. Huang et al., “Multi–Principal–Element Alloys with Improved Oxidation and Wear Resistance for Thermal Spray Coating”, J. Adv. Eng. Mater. vol. 6, no. 1-2, pp. 74–78, 2004.
4. J.W. Yeh, “Recent progress in high–entropy alloys”, J. Ann. Chim. Sci. Mat., vol. 31, no. 6. pp. 633–648, 2006.
5. Y. Zhang et al., “Solid–Solution Phase Formation Rules for Multi–component Alloys”, J. Adv. Eng. Mater., vol. 10, no. 6, pp. 534–538, 2008.
6. J.-W. Yeh et al., “High–Entropy Alloys – A New Era of Explotation”, Mater. Sci. Forum, no. 560. pp. 1–9, 2007.
7. X. Yang et al., “Microstructure and Compressive Properties of NbTiVTaAlx High Entropy Alloys”, J. Procedia Eng., no. 36, pp. 292–298, 2012.
8. A.L. Greer, “Thermodynamics of Solids”, Nature, no. 336, pp. 303–304, 1993.
9. S. Guo and C.T. Liu, “Phase Stability in HEAs: Phase stability in high entropy alloys:Formation of solid–solution phase or amorphous phase”, Progress in Material Sc.: Materials Int., no. 21, pp. 433–446, 2011.
10. B. Cantor et al., “Microstructural development in equiatomic multicomponent alloys”, J. Mater. Sci. Eng. A., no. 375–377, pp. 213–218, 2004.
11. S. Varalakshmi et al., “Formation and Stability of Equiatomic and Nonequiatomic Nanocrystalline CuNiCoZnAlTi High–Entropy Alloys by Mechanical Alloying”, Metallurgical and Materials Trans. A, vol. 10, no. 41, pp. 2703–2709, 2010.
12. Y. Zhang and Y.J. Zhou, “Solid solution formation criteria for high entropy alloys”, Materials Sci. Forum, no. 561-565, pp. 1337–1339, 2007.
13. D.A. Porter and K.E. Easterling, Phase Transformations in Metals аnd Alloys. London: Chapman & Hall, 1992, 514 p.
14. C. Kittel, Introduction to Solid State Physics. New York: John Wiley & Sons, 1996, 673 p.
15. F.R. de Boer, Cohesion in Metals. New York: Elsevier Scientific Pub. Co, 1988, 482 p.
16. A. Takeuchi and A. Inoue, “Calculation of mixing enthalpy and mismatch entropy for ternary amorphous alloys”, Mater. Trans., no. 41, pp. 1372–1378, 2000.
17. A.I. Yurkova et al., “Structure and Mechanical Properties of Iron Resulted from Surface Severe Plastic Deformation by Friction with Semultaneous Nitrogen Saturation: I. Fetures of Structure Formation”, Metally, no. 4, pp. 274–281, 2012.
18. P.P. Chattopadhyay et al., “Microstructure/phase evolution in mechanical alloying milling of stainless steel and aluminum powder blends”, Metall. Mater. Tras. A., no. 38A, pp. 2298–2307, 2007.
19. L. Schultz, “Formation of Amorphous Metals by Solid–State Reactions”, Philos. Mag. B, no. 61, pp. 453–471, 1990.
20. H.X. Sui et al., “The enhancement of solid solubility limits of AlCo intermetallic compound by high‐energy ball milling”, J. Appl. Phys., no. 71, pp. 2945–2949, 1992.

AttachmentSize
2014-5-12.pdf293.51 KB