# Features of Shale Gas in Rotary Kilns Building Materials Industry

The possibility of shale gas usage in existing kilns of building materials industry is analyzed. The questions considering determination of thermal performance conditions of kilns for burning cement using nature and shale are studied. For a more complete modeling a mathematical model, compared with the known, taking into account such additional factors as the temperature of the exhaust gases and the conditions refractory lining wear during operation was applied.

# Selecting of Mathematical Models for Determination of Energy Production Facilities “Standards” on the Basis of a Multi-Criteria Approach

The necessity of improvement of approaches monitoring energy resources consumption efficiency, which are applicable today in Ukraine and are based on a system of rationing of specific expenses of fuel and energy, is analyzed. For this purpose the possibility of application of the operational management of fuel and energy resources consumption efficiency, which represent set of so-called systems of planning and control of energy consumption was shown.

# New Metod of Measuring of Symmetric Sequences of Three-Phase Voltage

This article concerns the digital determination of three-phase quality indexes of electric power – coefficient of asymmetry on a negative sequence, rejection and oscillation of fundamental frequency voltage. These indexes are characterized by voltages of negative (VNS) and direct (VDS) sequences of fundamental frequency.

# Selection of Stabilitrons and Modes of the Power Supplies of Reference High-Voltage Installations of the Direct Current

The problem of stabilitrons selecting for use in reference high-voltage installations of a direct current, calculation of a high voltage pulsations are observed at various modes of operation of such installations and definitions of methods of their amplitude decreasing. Problems of support of the stable power supplies of reference installation depending on characteristics of an alternating voltage source selection and the circuit design of this voltage transformation are analyzed.

# Modelling of Organic Compounds Adsorption on Metals Based on the HSAB Concept

The adsorption process of surfactants on metals from the perspective of the charge-transfer complexes formation and their stabilization by charging and electronic (orbit) interaction is discussed. The expediency of Lewis-Usanovych acid-base balance and coming out of it principle of Pearson’s “hard” and “soft” acids and bases (HSAB) application in modelling of adsorption processes is shown. Equations that corresponds to the electrode adsorption equilibrium, conditioned by charging, electronic and charge-electron interaction are derived and qualitatively validated.

# Causal Diagrams Constructing for Sealed Electrochemical Devices on the Method of Ascent from the Abstract to the Concrete

The sequence of actions to build generalized causal diagrams for sealed electrochemical devices, which can be sealed primary and secondary chemical sources of electric power, ultracapacitors, electrochemical sensors and others device based on the specified settings, was described. Diagram allows visualizing the relationship of various factors affecting electrochemical devices and their stability during storage and use.

# Copper Production from a Carbonate Ores by Electrowinning Method

A process of compact copper electrowinning from the solution obtained by leaching copper from the ore by sulfuric acid was discussed. It was shown that the ore leaching is advisable to carry out with 10 % hydrochloric acid for 30–40 minutes with intensive stirring of the mixture. Copper electrowinning process was done from a concentrated solution with a stepped reduction of the current density which was proportional to the copper ion concentration decreasing during the process. The comparison of the parameters of the real and theoretical calculated processes was performed.

# The Development of the Electrochemical Methods for the Corrosion Rate Determination of Scientific School of L.I. Antropov

The development of scientific bases of electrochemical methods for the determination of the corrosion rate, which were originated under the guidance of outstanding electrochemists L.I. Antropov and continued by his followers’ school, was investigated. Accuracy aspects of the corrosion rate determination by polarization resistance (R p) method were discussed. It was shown that application of the two-electrode cell significantly decreases R p determination error.

# Influence of Electroosmotic Phenomena on Transient Duration in Amperometric Gas Sensors

The work is dedicated to the 100th anniversary of the birth of great scientist-electrochemist, corresponding member of USSR SA L.I. Antropov and continues series of studies of transients processes in amperometric sensors. Reasons of differences in the duration of transient processes in the measurements, differentiated break from several minutes to several hours, allowing time for the values of the output current signal by 10 and 50 % of its stationary value to estimate the expected value of reliable sensor signal prior to its stabilization were revealed.

# Infrared Hybrid Lenses with Corrected Spherical Aberration

This paper proposes the method of monochromatic lens spherical aberration correction by designing it as a hybrid lens. This method is based on the equation, which allows obtaining designing wavelength and focal distant of the hybrid lens diffractive part. The spherical aberration of the obtained diffractive part is equal to the refractive part of spherical aberration but has an opposite sign within a given clear aperture. Using this method, we calculate the plano-convex germanium hybrid lens with low f-number, which forms perfect spherical wavefront for the operating wavelength.