Makarova N.V.

Study of hard water pre-treatment methods for membrane purification

This paper describes hard water pre-treatment and mineralization for subsequent water conditioning, using membrane methods. Furthermore, we show that application of ion exchange water softening at its preliminary preparation stage is appropriate on the condition that water hardness is less than 20meq/dm3. Through experiments performed, we prove that the antiscalants usage is efficient for water pre-treatment with a high level of noncarbonated hardness.

The choice of the optimal cation exchanger for local water sodium cycle installations

According to the following criteria: purity degree, physical and chemical properties, the comparison of samples of industrial strongly acidic cation exchangers in Na-form is made in this paper to substantiate their efficiency in water softening processes. Furthermore, we compare production costs of sodium cycling process in the course of concurrent regeneration with different consumption of NaCl and speeds of water passing.